Research Reference

Research Reference

Here is research reference documenting the therapeutic properties of essential oils.

Al-Awadi FM, et al. “Studies on the activity of individual plants of an antidiabetic plant mixture.” Acta Diabetol Lat. 1987;24(1):37-41.

Aqel MB. “Relaxant effect of the volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis on tracheal smooth muscle.” J Ethnopharmacol. 1991;33(1-2):57-62.

Aruna, K. and V.M. Sivaramakrishnan. “Anticarcinogenic Effects of the Essential Oils from Cumin, Poppy and Basil.” Food Chem Toxicol. 1992;30(11):953-56.

Azizan A, et al. “Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity testing of six chemicals associated with the pungent properties of specific spices as revealed by the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay.” Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1995;28(2):248-58.

Bassett IB, et al. “A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne.” Med J Aust. 1990;153(8):455-8.

Benencia F, et al. “Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil against herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2.” Phytomedicine. 1999;6(2):119-23

Bernardis LL, et al. “The lateral hypothalamic area revisited: ingestive behavior.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 20(2):189-287 (1996).

Bilgrami KS, et al. “Inhibition of aflatoxin production & growth of Aspergillus flavus by eugenol & onion & garlic extracts.” Indian J Med Res. 1992;96:171-5.


Bradshaw RH, et al. “Effects of lavender straw on stress and travel sickness in pigs.” J Altern Complement Med. 1998;4(3):271-5.

Brodal A., “Neurological Anatomy in Relation to Clinical Medicine”. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Buchbauer G, et al. “Aromatherapy: evidence for sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation.” Z Naturforsch [C]. 1991;46(11-12):1067-72.

Carson CF, et al. “Antimicrobial activity of the major components of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia.” J Appl Bacteriol. 1995;78(3):264-9.

Compendium of Olfactory Research. Edited by Avery N. Gilbert. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing, 1995.

Concha JM, et al. 1998 William J. Stickel Bronze Award. “Antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree) oil against various pathogenic organisms.” J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1998;88(10): 489-92

Cornwell S, et al. “Lavender oil and perineal repair.” Mod Midwife 1995;5(3):31-3.

Delaveau P, et al. “Neuro-depressive properties of essential oil of lavender.” C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1989;183(4):342-8.

Didry N, et al. “Activity of thymol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on oral bacteria.” Pharm Acta Helv. 1994;69(1):25-8.

Diego MA, et al. “Aromatherapy positively affects mood, EEG patterns of alertness and math computations.” Int J Neurosci. 1998 Dec;96(3-4):217-24.


Dolara P, et al. “Analgesic effects of myrrh.” Nature. 1996 Jan 4;379(6560):29.

Dunn C, et al. “Sensing an improvement: an experimental study to evaluate the use of aromatherapy, massage and periods of rest in an intensive care unit.” J Adv Nurs. 1995;21(1):34-40.

Dwivedi C, et al. “Chemopreventive effects of sandalwood oil on skin papillomas in mice.” Eur J Cancer Prev. 1997;6(4):399-401.

Elson CE, et al. “Impact of lemongrass oil, an essential oil, on serum cholesterol.” Lipids. 1989;24(8):677-9.

Fang, H.J., et al. “Studies on the chemical components and anti-tumour action of the volatile oils from Pelargonium graveoleus.” Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao. 1989;24(5):366-71.

Faoagali JL, et al. “Antimicrobial effects of melaleuca oil.” Burns. 1998;24(4):383.

Fleming, T., Ed. PDR for Herbal Medicines, Medical Economics Company, Inc., Montvale, NJ (1998).

Fyfe L, et al. “Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteriditis by combinations of plant oils and derivatives of benzoic acid: the development of synergistic antimicrobial combinations.” Int J Antimicrob Agents. 1997;9(3):195-9.

Gattefosse, René-Maurice. Gattefosse’s Aromatherapy. Saffron Walden, UK: C.W. Daniel & Co., 1993.

Gobel H, et al. “Effect of peppermint and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysiological and experimental algesimetric headache parameters.” Cephalalgia. 1994; 14(3):228-34.


Guillemain J, et al. “Neurodepressive effects of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.” Ann Pharm Fr. 1989;47(6):337-43.

Gumbel D., “Principles of Holistic Therapy with Herbal Essences”, Haug International, Brussels, Belgium (1993)

Hammer KA, et al. “In vitro susceptibilities of lactobacilli and organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil.” Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43(1):196.

Hammer KA, et al. “Susceptibility of transient and commensal skin flora to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil).” Am J Infect Control. 1996;24(3):186-9.

Hasan HA, et al. “Inhibitory effect of spice oils on lipase and mycotoxin production.” Zentralbl Mikrobiol. 1993;148(8):543-8.

Hausen BM, et al. “Comparative studies of the sensitizing capacity of drugs used in herpes simplex.” Derm Beruf Umwelt. 1986;34(6):163-70.

Hay IC, et al. “Randomized trial of aromatherapy. Successful treatment for alopecia areata.” Arch Dermatol. 1998; 134(11):1349-52.

Hirsch, Alan. “Inhalation of 2 acetylpyridine for weight reduction.” Chemical Senses 18:570 (1993). Hirsch, Alan. A Scentsational Guide to Weight Loss. Rockport, MA: Element, 1997.

Inouye S, et al. “Antisporulating and respiration-inhibitory effects of essential oils on filamentous fungi.” Mycoses. 1998;41(9-10):403-10.

Jayashree T, et al. “Antiaflatoxigenic activity of eugenol is due to inhibition of lipid peroxidation.” Lett Appl Microbiol. 1999; 28(3):179-83.


Juergens UR, et al. “The anti-inflammatory activity of L-menthol compared to mint oil in human monocytes in vitro: a novel perspective for its therapeutic use in inflammatory diseases.” Eur J Med Res. 1998; 3(12):539-45.

Kim HM, et al. “Lavender oil inhibits immediate-type allergic reaction in mice and rats.” J Pharm Pharmacol. 1999;51(2):221-6.

Kucera LS, et al. “Antiviral activities of extracts of the lemon balm plant.” Ann NY Acad Sci. 1965 Jul 30;130(1):474-82.

Kulieva ZT, “Analgesic, hypotensive and cardiotonic action of the essential oil of the thyme growing in Azerbaijan.” Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR. 1980;(9):61-3.

Lachowicz KJ, et al. “The synergistic preservative effects of the essential oils of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) against acid-tolerant food microflora.” Lett Appl Microbiol. 1998;26(3):209-14.

Lantry LE, et al. “Chemopreventive effect of perillyl alcohol on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1-butanone induced tumorigenesis in (C3H/HeJ X A/J)F1 mouse lung.” J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1997;27:20-5.

Larrondo JV, et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essences from labiates.” Microbios. 1995; 82(332): 171-2.

Lis-Balchin, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of Pelargonium essential oils added to a quiche filling as a model food system.” Lett Appl Microbiol. 1998;27(4):207-10.

Lis-Balchin, M., et al. “Comparative antibacterial effects of novel Pelargonium essential oils and solvent extracts.” Lett Appl Microbiol. 1998;27(3): 135-41.

Lorenzetti BB, et al. “Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea.” J Ethnopharmacol. 1991;34(1):43-8.

Mahmood N, et al. “The anti-HIV activity and mechanisms of action of pure compounds isolated from Rosa damascena.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;229(1):73-9.

Mangena T, et al. “Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Artemisia afra, Pteronia incana and Rosmarinus officinalis on selected bacteria and yeast strains.” Lett Appl Microbiol. 1999;28(4):291-6.


Maury, Marguerite, “The Secret and Life of Youth”. Saffon Waldon, UK: C.W. Daniels & Co., 1995.

McGuffin, M., et al. “Botanical Safety Handbook”, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1997)

Meeker HG, et al. “The antibacterial action of eugenol, thyme oil, and related essential oils used in dentistry.” Compendium. 1988;9(1):32, 34-5, 38 passim.

Michie, C.A., et al. “Frankincense and myrrh as remedies in children.” J R Soc Med. 1991;84(10): 602-5.

Modgil R, et al. “Efficacy of mint and eucalyptus leaves on the physicochemical characteristics of stored wheat against insect infestation.” Nahrung. 1998;42(5):304-8.

Moleyar V, et al. “Antibacterial activity of essential oil components.” Int J Food Microbiol. 1992;16(4): 337-42.

Montagna, F. J., HDR Herbal Desk Reference Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA (1979).

Murray, M. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements, Prima Publishing, Rocklin, CA (1996).

Nagababu E, et al. “The protective effects of eugenol on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats.” Free Radic Res. 1995;23(6):617-27.

Naidu KA. “Eugenolan — an inhibitor of lipoxygenase-dependent lipid peroxidation.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1995;53(5):381-3.

Nakamoto K, et al. “In vitro effectiveness of mouthrinses against Candida albicans.” Int J Prosthodont. 1995;8(5):486-9.

Nasel, C. et al. “Functional imaging of effects of fragrances on the human brain after prolonged inhalation.” Chemical Senses. 1994;19(4):359-64

Nenoff P, et al. “Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) against pathogenic fungi in vitro.” Skin Pharmacol. 1996;9(6):388-94.


Nikolaevskii VV, et al. “Effect of essential oils on the course of experimental atherosclerosis.” Pat ol Fiziol Eksp Ter. 1990; (5):52-3.

Nishijima H, et al. “Mechanisms mediating the vasorelaxing action of eugenol, a pungent oil, on rabbit arterial tissue.” Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999 Mar;79(3):327-34.

Panizzi L, et al. “Composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils of four Mediterranean Lamiaceae.” J Ethnopharmacol. 1993;39(3):167-70.

Pattnaik S, et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro.” Microbios. 1996;86(349):237-46.

Pedersen, M., Nutritional Herbology, A Reference Guide to Herbs, Wendell W. Whitman Company, Warsaw, IN (1998)

Penoél, Daniel and P. Franchomme. L’aromatherapie exactment. France, 1990: Roger Jallois Pénoël, Daniel. Natural Home Health Care Using Essential Oils. Salem, UT: Essential Science Publishing, 1998.

Privitera, James. Silent Clots. Covina, CA: 1996

Reddy BS, et al. “Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by dietary perillyl alcohol.” Cancer Res. 1997;57(3):420-5.

Reddy AC, et al. “Effect of curcumin and eugenol on iron-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.” Toxicology 1996;107(1):39-45.

Reddy AC, et al. “Studies on anti-inflammatory activity of spice principles and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats.” Ann Nutr Metab. 1994;38(6): 349-58.

Rompelberg CJ, et al. “Antimutagenicity of eugenol in the rodent bone marrow micronucleus test.” Mutat Res. 1995;346(2):69-75.

Rompelberg CJ, et al. “Effect of short-term dietary administration of eugenol in humans” Hum Exp Toxicol. 1996;15(2):129-35.

Saeed SA, et al. “Antithrombotic activity of clove oil.” JPMA J Pak Med Assoc. 1994;44(5):112-5.


Samman MA, et al. “Mint prevents shamma-induced carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch.” Carcinogenesis. 1998;19(10):1795-801.

Shapiro S, et al. “The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria.” Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1994;9(4): 202-8.

Sharma JN, et al. “Suppressive effects of eugenol and ginger oil on arthritic rats.” Pharmacology. 1994;49(5):314-8.

Shirota S, et al. “Tyrosinase inhibitors from crude drugs.” Biol Pharm Bull. 1994; 17(2):266-9.

Srivastava KC. “Antiplatelet principles from a food spice clove.” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1993;48(5):363-72.

Steinman, David and Samuel S. Epstein. “The Safe Shopper’s Bible: A Consumer’s Guide to Nontoxic Household Products, Cosmetics, and Food.” Macmillan, New York, NY (1995).

Sukumaran K, et al. “Inhibition of tumour promotion in mice by eugenol.” Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1994;38(4):306-8.

Syed TA, et al. “Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream.” Trop Med Int Health. 1999;4(4):284-7.

Sysoev NP. “The effect of waxes from essential-oil plants on the dehydrogenase activity of the blood neutrophils in mucosal trauma of the mouth.” Stomatologiia 1991;70(1):12-3.

Takacsova M, et al. “Study of the antioxidative effects of thyme, sage, juniper and oregano.” Nahrung. 1995;39(3):241-3.

Tantaoui-Elaraki A, et al. “Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials.” J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1994;13(1):67-72.

Tisserand, R. and T. Balacs Essential Oil Safety, Churchill Livingstone, New York, NY (1996).


Tiwari BK, et al. “Evaluation of insecticidal, fumigant and repellent properties of lemongrass oil.” Indian J Exp Biol. 1966;4(2):128-9.

Tovey ER, et al. “A simple washing procedure with eucalyptus oil for controlling house dust mites and their allergens in clothing and bedding.” J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997; 100(4):464-6.

Tyler, V. E. Herbs of Choice Pharmaceutical Products Press, Binghamton, NY (1994).

Tyler, V. E. The Honest Herbal, Lubrect & Cramer, Ltd., Port Jervis, NY (1995).

Unnikrishnan MC, et al. “Tumour reducing and anticarcinogenic activity of selected spices.” Cancer Lett. 1990;51(1):85-9.

Valnet, Jean. Robert Tisserand, ed. “The Practice of Aromatherapy.” Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT (1990).

Veal L. “The potential effectiveness of essential oils as a treatment for headlice, Pediculus humanus capitis.” Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 1996;2(4):97-101.

Vernet-Maury E, et al. “Basic emotions induced by odorants: a new approach based on autonomic pattern results.” J Auton Nerv Syst. 1999;75(2-3): 176-83.

Wagner J, et al. “Beyond benzodiazepines: alternative pharmacologic agents for the treatment of insomnia.” Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(6):680-91.

Wan J, et al. “The effect of essential oils of basil on the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas fluorescens.” J Appl Microbiol. 1998;84(2):152-8.

Wang, L.G., et al. “Determination of DNA topoisomerase II activity from L1210 cells–a target for screening antitumor agents.” Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao. 1991;12(2):108-14.

Weyers W, et al. “Skin absorption of volatile oils. Pharmacokinetics.” Pharm Unserer Zeit. 1989; 18(3):82-6.


Wie MB, et al. “Eugenol protects neuronal cells from excitotoxic and oxidative injury in primary cortical cultures.” Neurosci Lett. 1997: 4;225(2):93-6.

Yamada K, et al. “Anticonvulsive effects of inhaling lavender oil vapour.” Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17(2):359-60.

Yamasaki K, et al. “Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae.” Biol Pharm Bull. 1998;21(8):829-33.

Yang, K.K. et al., “Antiemetic principles of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.” Phytomedicine 1999, 6(2): 89-93.

Youdim KA, et al. “Beneficial effects of thyme oil on age-related changes in the phospholipid C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of various rat tissues.” Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1438(1): 140-6.

Young, Robert O. Sick and Tired. Alpine, UT, 1977.

Yousef, R.T. and G.G. Tawil. “Antimicrobial activity of volatile oils.” Pharmazie 1980; 35(11);798-701

Zanker KS, et al. “Evaluation of surfactant-like effects of commonly used remedies for colds.” Respiration. 1980;39(3):150-7.

 

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